Types of Cancer

“There are more than 100 sorts of cancer. Most of cancer are usually named on the organs or tissues where the cancers form. For instance, brain cancer starts in cells of the brain & lung cancer starts in cells of the lung. Cancers could also be described by the sort of cell that formed them, like a somatic cell or an epithelial cell.”- Says Dr. Sandeep Nayak who is one of the best oncologist inIndia.

Here are some categories of cancers that begin in specific sorts of cells:

Carcinoma

Carcinomas are the foremost common sort of cancer. They’re formed by epithelial cells, which are the cells that cover the in and out surfaces of the body. There are many sorts of epithelial cells, which frequently have a column-like shape when viewed under a microscope. Carcinomas that begin in several somatic cell types have specific names:

Adenocarcinoma may be a cancer that forms in epithelial cells that produce fluids or mucus. Tissues with this sort of somatic cell are sometimes called glandular tissues. According to the oncologists, most cancers of the breast, colon, and prostate are adenocarcinomas.

Basal cell carcinoma may be a cancer that begins within the lower or basal (base) layer of the epidermis, which may be a person’s outer layer of skin.

Squamous cell carcinoma may be a cancer that forms in squamous cells, that are epithelial cells which lie just beneath the outer surface of our skin. Squamous cells also line many other organs, including the stomach, lungs, bladder, intestines, and kidneys. When viewed under a microscope squamous cells look flat, like fish scales. Epithelial cell carcinomas are sometimes called epidermoid carcinomas.

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Transitional cell carcinoma may be a cancer that forms in a sort of epithelium called transitional epithelium, or urothelium. This tissue, which is formed from many layers of epithelial cells which will get bigger and smaller, is found within the linings of the bladder, ureters, kidneys (renal pelvis), and a couple of other organs. Some cancers of the ureters, bladder, and kidneys are mostly transitional cell carcinomas.

Sarcoma

Osteosarcoma is that the commonest cancer of bone. The foremost common sorts of soft tissue sarcoma are leiomyosarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, etc.Sarcomas are cancers that form in bone and soft tissues, including muscle, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and animal tissue (such as tendons and ligaments).

Leukemia

There are four common sorts of leukemia, which are grouped supported how quickly the disease gets worse (acute or chronic) and on the sort of blood corpuscle the cancer starts in (lymphoblastic or myeloid).Cancers that begin within the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow are called leukemias. These cancers don’t form solid tumors. Instead, large numbers of abnormal white blood cells (leukemia cells and leukemic blast cells) build up within the blood and bone marrow, which impacts the flow of normal blood cells. The low level of normal blood cells can make it harder for the body to urge oxygen to its tissues, control bleeding, or fight infections.

Lymphoma

It begins in lymphocytes. These are disease-fighting white blood cells that are a part of the human immune system. In lymphoma, abnormal lymphocytes build up in lymph nodes and lymph vessels, also as in other organs of the body.

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There are two main sorts of lymphoma:

Hodgkin lymphoma – People with this disease have abnormal lymphocytes structure that are also known as Reed-Sternberg cells. These cells usually form from B cells.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma – This is often an outsized group of cancers that start in lymphocytes. The cancers can grow quickly or slowly and may form from B cells or T cells.

Multiple Myeloma

 MelanomaMultiple myeloma is cancer that begins in plasma cells, another sort of immune cell. The abnormal plasma cells, called myeloma cells, build up within the bone marrow and form tumors in bones in the body. Myeloma is additionally called plasmacyte myeloma and Kahler disease.

Brain and Spinal TumorsMelanoma is cancer that begins in cells which has become melanocytes, that are specialized cells which is responsible for making melanin (the pigment that provides skin its color). Most melanomas form on the skin, but melanomas also can form in other pigmented tissues, like the eyes.

There are various types of brain and spine tumors. These tumors are named supported the sort of cell during which they formed and where the tumor first formed within the central nervous system. For instance, an astrocytic tumor begins in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes, which help keep nerve cells healthy. Brain tumors are often benign (not cancerous) but in some cases they can also be malignant (cancerous).

Other sorts of Tumors

Germ cell tumors are a kind of tumor that begins within the cells that produce to sperm or eggs. These tumors can occur almost anywhere within the body and may be either benign or malignant. Germ Cell Tumors

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Neuroendocrine Tumors

Neuroendocrine tumors form from cells that release hormones into the blood in response to a sign from the central nervous system. These tumors, which can make higher-than-normal amounts of hormones, can cause many various symptoms. Neuroendocrine tumors could also be benign or malignant.

Carcinoid Tumors

Carcinoid tumors are a kind of neuroendocrine tumor. They’re slow- growing tumors that are usually found within the digestive system (most often within the rectum and small intestine). Carcinoid tumors may cause carcinoid syndrome by secreting substances like serotonin or prostaglandins.